News and Commentary Archive

Explore recent scientific discoveries and news as well as CLBB events, commentary, and press.

Mission

The speed of technology in neuroscience as it impacts ethical and just decisions in the legal system needs to be understood by lawyers, judges, public policy makers, and the general public. The Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Law, Brain, and Behavior is an academic and professional resource for the education, research, and understanding of neuroscience and the law. Read more

Random Forest Segregation of Drug Responses May define Regions of Biological Significance

By Qasim Bukhari, David Borsook, Markus Rudin, and Lino Becerra | Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience | February 23, 2016

Abstract:

The ability to assess brain responses in unsupervised manner based on fMRI measure has remained a challenge. Here we have applied the Random Forest (RF) method to detect differences in the pharmacological MRI (phMRI) response in rats to treatment with an analgesic drug (buprenorphine) as compared to control (saline). Three groups of animals were studied: two groups treated with different doses of the opioid buprenorphine, low (LD) and high dose (HD), and one receiving saline. PhMRI responses were evaluated in 45 brain regions and RF analysis was applied to allocate rats to the individual treatment groups. RF analysis was able to identify drug effects based on differential phMRI responses in the hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, superior colliculus and the lateral and posterior thalamus for drug vs. saline. These structures have high levels of mu opioid receptors. In addition these regions are involved in aversive signaling, which is inhibited by mu opioids. The results demonstrate that buprenorphine mediated phMRI responses comprise characteristic features that allow an unsupervised differentiation from placebo treated rats as well as the proper allocation to the respective drug dose group using the RF method, a method that has been successfully applied in clinical studies.

Read the full article here.

A New MRI Masking Technique Based on Multi-Atlas Brain Segmentation in Controls and Schizophrenia: A Rapid and Viable Alternative to Manual Masking

By Elisabetta C. del Re, Yi Gao, Ryan Eckbo, Tracey L. Petryshen, Gabriëlla A.M. Blokland, Larry J. Seidman, Jun Konishi, Jill M. Goldstein, Robert W. McCarley, Martha E. Shenton, and Sylvain Bouix | Journal of Neuroimaging | November 20, 2015

Abstract:

Brain masking of MRI images separates brain from surrounding tissue and its accuracy is important for further imaging analyses. We implemented a new brain masking technique based on multi-atlas brain segmentation (MABS) and compared MABS to masks generated using FreeSurfer (FS; version 5.3), Brain Extraction Tool (BET), and Brainwash, using manually defined masks (MM) as the gold standard. We further determined the effect of different masking techniques on cortical and subcortical volumes generated by FreeSurfer.

METHODS

Images were acquired on a 3-Tesla MR Echospeed system General Electric scanner on five control and five schizophrenia subjects matched on age, sex, and IQ. Automated masks were generated from MABS, FS, BET, and Brainwash, and compared to MM using these metrics: a) volume difference from MM; b) Dice coefficients; and c) intraclass correlation coefficients.

RESULTS

Mean volume difference between MM and MABS masks was significantly less than the difference between MM and FS or BET masks. Dice coefficient between MM and MABS was significantly higher than Dice coefficients between MM and FS, BET, or Brainwash. For subcortical and left cortical regions, MABS volumes were closer to MM volumes than were BET or FS volumes. For right cortical regions, MABS volumes were closer to MM volumes than were BET volumes.

CONCLUSIONS

Brain masks generated using FreeSurfer, BET, and Brainwash are rapidly obtained, but are less accurate than manually defined masks. Masks generated using MABS, in contrast, resemble more closely the gold standard of manual masking, thereby offering a rapid and viable alternative.

Read the entire article here.