News and Commentary Archive

Explore recent scientific discoveries and news as well as CLBB events, commentary, and press.

Mission

The speed of technology in neuroscience as it impacts ethical and just decisions in the legal system needs to be understood by lawyers, judges, public policy makers, and the general public. The Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Law, Brain, and Behavior is an academic and professional resource for the education, research, and understanding of neuroscience and the law. Read more

Traumatic Brain Injury in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

By Stephanie Deighton, Lisa Buchy, Kristin S. Cadenhead, Tyrone D. Cannon, Barbara A. Cornblatt, Thomas H. McGlashan, Diana O. Perkins, Larry J. Seidman, Ming T. Tsuang, Elaine F. Walker, Scott W. Woods, Carrie E. Bearden, Daniel Mathalon, and Jean Addington | Schizophrenia Research | May 7, 2016

Abstract:

Background

Recent research suggests that a traumatic brain injury (TBI) can significantly increase the risk of later development of psychosis. However, it is unknown whether people at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis have experienced TBI at higher rates, compared to otherwise healthy individuals. This study evaluated the prevalence of mild TBI, whether it was related to past trauma and the relationship of mild TBI to later transition to psychosis.

Methods

Seven-hundred forty-seven CHR and 278 healthy controls (HC) were assessed on past history of mild TBI, age at first and last injury, severity of worst injury and number of injuries using the Traumatic Brain Injury Interview. Attenuated psychotic symptoms were assessed with the Scale of Psychosis-risk Symptoms. IQ was estimated using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and past trauma and bullying were recorded using the Childhood Trauma and Abuse Scale.

Results

CHR participants experienced a mild TBI more often than the HC group. CHR participants who had experienced a mild TBI reported greater total trauma and bullying scores than those who had not, and those who experienced a mild TBI and later made the transition to psychosis were significantly younger at the age at first and most recent injury than those who did not.

Conclusion

A history of mild TBI is more frequently observed in CHR individuals than in HC. Inclusion or study of CHR youth with more severe TBI may provide additional insights on the relationship between TBI and later transition to psychosis in CHR individuals.

Read the entire article here.

Hyperactivity of Caudate, Parahippocampal, and Prefrontal Regions During Working Memory in Never-Medicated Persons at Clinical High-Risk for Psychosis

By Heidi W. Thermenos, Richard J. Juelich, Samantha R. DiChiara, Raquelle I. Mesholam-Gately, Kristen A. Woodberry, Joanne Wojcik, Nikos Makris, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Tsung-Ung W. Woo, Tracey L. Petryshen, Jill M. Goldstein, Martha E. Shenton, Robert W. McCarley, and Larry J. Seidman | Schizophrenia Research | March 7, 2016

Abstract:

Background

Deficits in working memory (WM) are a core feature of schizophrenia (SZ) and other psychotic disorders. We examined brain activity during WM in persons at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis.

Methods

Thirty-seven CHR and 34 healthy control participants underwent functional MRI (fMRI) on a 3.0 T scanner while performing an N-back WM task. The sample included a sub-sample of CHR participants who had no lifetime history of treatment with psychotropic medications (n = 11). Data were analyzed using SPM8 (2-back > 0-back contrast). Pearson correlations between brain activity, symptoms, and WM performance were examined.

Results

The total CHR group and medication-naive CHR sub-sample were comparable to controls in most demographic features and in N-back WM performance, but had significantly lower IQ. Relative to controls, medication-naïve CHR showed hyperactivity in the left parahippocampus (PHP) and the left caudate during performance of the N-back WM task. Relative to medication-exposed CHR, medication naïve CHR exhibited hyperactivity in the left caudate and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). DLPFC activity was significantly negatively correlated with WM performance. PHP, caudate and DLPFC activity correlated strongly with symptoms, but results did not withstand FDR-correction for multiple comparisons. When all CHR participants were combined (regardless of medication status), only trend-level PHP hyperactivity was observed in CHR relative to controls.

Conclusions

Medication-naïve CHR exhibit hyperactivity in regions that subserve WM. These regions are implicated in studies of schizophrenia and risk for psychosis. Results emphasize the importance of medication status in the interpretation of task – induced brain activity.

Read the full article here.

The Relations of Age and Pubertal Development with Cortisol and Daily Stress in Youth at Clinical Risk for Psychosis

By Danielle M. Moskow, Jean Addington, Carrie E. Bearden, Kristin S. Cadenhead, Barbara A. Cornblatt, Robert Heinssen, Daniel H. Mathalon, Thomas H. McGlashan, Diana O. Perkins, Larry J. Seidman, Ming T. Tsuang, Tyrone D. Cannon, Scott W. Woods, and Elaine F. Walker | Schizophrenia Research | February 20, 2016

Abstract:

Background

Prodromal syndromes often begin in adolescence — a period of neurodevelopmental changes and heightened stress sensitivity. Research has shown elevated stress and cortisol in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. This cross-sectional study examined relations of age and pubertal status with cortisol and self-reported stress in healthy controls (HCs) and CHR adolescents. It was hypothesized that the relations of age and pubertal stage with cortisol and stress would be more pronounced in CHR youth.

Methods

Participants were 93 HCs and 348 CHR adolescents from the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). At baseline, measures of stress (Daily Stress Inventory — DSI), Tanner stage (TS), and salivary cortisol were obtained.

Results

ANCOVA revealed increased DSI scores with age for both groups, and higher DSI scores in CHR adolescents than HCs, with a more pronounced difference for females. Contrary to prediction, with age controlled, HCs showed greater TS-related DSI increases. Analysis of cortisol showed no significant interactions, but a main effect of age and a trend toward higher cortisol in the CHR group. Correlations of cortisol with TS were higher in HC than CHR group.

Conclusions

Stress measures increased with age in HC and CHR adolescents, and DSI scores also increased with TS in HCs. The results do not support a more pronounced age or TS increase in stress measures in CHR adolescents, but instead suggest that stress indices tend to be elevated earlier in adolescence in the CHR group. Potential determinants of findings and future directions are discussed.

Read the full paper here.

Healthy Adolescent Performance on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB): Developmental Data from Two Samples of Volunteers

By William S. Stone, Raquelle I. Mesholam-Gately, Anthony J. Giuliano, Kristen A. Woodberry, Jean Addington, Carrie E. Bearden, Kristin S. Cadenhead, Tyrone D. Cannon, Barbara A. Cornblatt, Daniel H. Mathalon, Thomas H. McGlashan, Diana O. Perkins, Ming T. Tsuang, Elaine F. Walker, Scott W. Woods, Robert W. McCarley, Robert Heinssen, Michael F. Green, Keith Nuechterlein, and Larry J. Seidman | Schizophrenia Research | February 16, 2016

Abstract:

The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) fills a significant need for a standardized battery of cognitive tests to use in clinical trials for schizophrenia in adults aged 20–59. A need remains, however, to develop norms for younger individuals, who also show elevated risks for schizophrenia. Toward this end, we assessed performance in healthy adolescents. Baseline MCCB, reading and IQ data were obtained from healthy controls (ages 12–19) participating in two concurrent NIMH-funded studies: North American Prodromal Longitudinal Study phase 2 (NAPLS-2; n = 126) and Boston Center for Intervention Development and Applied Research (CIDAR; n = 13). All MCCB tests were administered except the Managing Emotions subtest from the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. Data were collected from 8 sites across North America. MCCB scores were presented in four 2-year age cohorts as T-scores for each test and cognitive domain, and analyzed for effects of age and sex. Due to IQ differences between age-grouped subsamples, IQ served as a covariate in analyses. Overall and sex-based raw scores for individual MCCB tests are presented for each age-based cohort. Adolescents generally showed improvement with age in most MCCB cognitive domains, with the clearest linear trends in Attention/Vigilance and Working Memory. These control data show that healthy adolescence is a dynamic period for cognitive development that is marked by substantial improvement in MCCB performance through the 12–19 age range. They also provide healthy comparison raw scores to facilitate clinical evaluations of adolescents, including those at risk for developing psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia-related conditions.

Read the entire paper here.

Early Traumatic Experiences, Perceived Discrimination and Conversion to Psychosis in Those at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

By Jacqueline Stowkowy, Lu Liu, Kristin S. Cadenhead, Tyrone D. Cannon, Barbara A. CornblattThomas H. McGlashan, Diana O. Perkins, Larry J. Seidman, Ming T. Tsuang, Elaine F. WalkerScott W. Woods, Carrie E. Bearden, Daniel H. Mathalon, and Jean Addington | Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology | February 6, 2016

Abstract:

Purpose

There is evidence to suggest that both early traumatic experiences and perceived discrimination are associated with later onset of psychosis. Less is known about the impact these two factors may have on conversion to psychosis in those who are at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if trauma and perceived discrimination were predictors of conversion to psychosis.

Methods

The sample consisted of 764 individuals who were at CHR of developing psychosis and 280 healthy controls. All participants were assessed on past trauma, bullying and perceived discrimination.

Results

Individuals at CHR reported significantly more trauma, bullying and perceived discrimination than healthy controls. Only perceived discrimination was a predictor of later conversion to psychosis.

Conclusions

Given that CHR individuals are reporting increased rates of trauma and perceived discrimination, these should be routinely assessed, with the possibility of offering interventions aimed at ameliorating the impact of past traumas as well as improving self-esteem and coping strategies in an attempt to reduce perceived discrimination.

Read the entire article here.